This post about first person point of view limitations was inspired by a question from Debbie B., one of my editorial clients, and her critique group. First person is great. A lot of people use it. It lends a sense of immediacy and accessibility to your work. The logic is that it’s easy to connect to a protagonist when you’re intimately involved in their interiority (thoughts, feelings, reactions). But first person POV has a lot of limitations. (Plus it’s overused, and some writers avoid* it because of how common it is.)
First Person Point of View Limitations
Not Being Able To Go Inside Another Character’s Head
Perhaps the biggest limitation with first person point of view is that you don’t have access to anyone else’s interiority. In close third person, you don’t really, either, but in omniscient third person, you can “head hop” to your heart’s content and access any number of characters. First person POV limits you. For example, you cannot say something like:
“I don’t know,” Susie said, feeling annoyed.
Since Susie is not our protagonist, we can’t now her inner landscape. So how do you get around it? Instead, you can say something like:
“I don’t know,” Susie said, annoyance in her voice.
Or you can put the emotion in dialogue:
“Ugh, I don’t know, okay?”
Or you can venture a guess like this:
“I don’t know,” Susie said, as if I’d asked the most annoying question ever.
Or like this:
“I don’t know,” Susie said, and she was probably still mad at me for being late.
It’s up to you how much to use these techniques. I would suggest to limit the guessing and let Susie’s action and dialogue tell the story. The hard and fast rule is that the one thing you can’t do is tell the reader what’s actually going on in Susie’s head. That crosses first person POV lines.
The Protagonist Having to Be Present
The biggest plot-related problem with first person point of view is that your protagonist has to be around for everything. Dagnabit! But, they are the narrator. So if they’re not there when the murder weapon is found and planted in their locker, they can’t narrate it. So the reader can’t find out about it. And it doesn’t get on the page.
How do you get around this? I’m less able to prescribe a solution because a lot depends on what you need to narrate. Here are some common workarounds, though do be warned that some of these are cliché at this point:
- Eavesdropping (they can overhear key information)
- Clues (they can find clues to key information)
- Direct confrontation (not everything has to be hidden, sometimes you’ll solve problems by revealing your secret sooner because the ramifications are actually where the drama is)
How else do you get around these issues? Are you grappling with any questions about pov in writing? Leave some thoughts in the comments.
*ETA: I didn’t meant that agents and editors reject a project just because it uses a first person point of view. I meant that some writers avoid it and try third person because they don’t want to use such a common POV. I have to be careful about the word “reject”! Thanks, Chris!
When you invest in my manuscript critique service, I’ll help you strengthen your main character’s POV — whether you’re writing from a first person POV, close third, or omniscient third.